A study detailing the processes that control mole size may help scientists find new ways to prevent skin cancer from growing — ScienceDaily

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Moles stop growing when they reach a certain size due to normal interactions between cells, despite having cancer-associated gene mutations, says a new study published today in eLife.

The findings in mice could help scientists develop new ways to prevent skin cancer growth that take advantage of the normal mechanisms that control cell growth in the body.

Mutations that activate the protein made by the BRAF gene are believed to contribute to the development of skin cancer. However, recent studies have shown that these mutations do not often cause skin cancer, but instead result in the formation of completely harmless pigmented moles on the skin. In fact, 90% of moles have these cancer-linked mutations but never go on to form tumours. “Exploring why moles stop growing might lead us to a better understanding of what goes wrong in skin cancer,” says lead author Roland Ruiz-Vega, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Irvine, US.

Scientists believe that stress caused by rapid cell growth may stop the growth of moles through a process called oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), but this has not been proven. To test the idea, Ruiz-Vega and colleagues studied mice with BRAF mutations that develop numerous moles.

The team first focused on assessing ‘senescence’, a set of changes in cells usually associated with aging. Using a technique called single-cell RNA sequencing to compare mole cells with normal skin cells, they found that moles are growth-arrested, but no more senescent than normal skin cells. The cells also did not have any apparent differences in gene expression (where a gene is activated to create a necessary protein) that would support the idea of OIS controlling their growth.

Additionally, computer modelling of mole growth did not support the idea of OIS. In fact, the models suggested that mole cells communicate

Colors, screen size and more

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Analysts suggest Apple is on the cusp of launching its latest generation of superphone, with an event announced for Oct. 13 (you can livestream Apple’s event from home — here’s how to watch). The current hottest rumors suggest that we may see multiple versions of the iPhone 12, with features like 5G, lidar depth mapping and the latest A14 Bionic processor. (And here are some features on our iPhone 12 wish list that Apple should steal from Samsung.)  But what will the phone look like? Let’s dive into the rumor mill to work it out.



a screen shot of a computer: A concept mockup of the iPhone 12. Phone Arena


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A concept mockup of the iPhone 12. Phone Arena

Read more: Is iPhone 12 cheaper than iPhone 11? Here’s what we’ve heard about price

Every iPhone 12 feature we expect Apple to announce

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Multiple iPhone 12 sizes



a screen shot of a computer


© Phone Arena


First up, the physical size of the phone. Mobile industry analysts suggest that there will be four iterations of the phone, with the smallest being the new 5.4-inch iPhone 12 Mini. Then there’s the two base models, the iPhone 12 and 12 Pro, both expected to be 6.1 inches, making them slightly bigger than the current iPhone 11 Pro’s 5.8-inch size.

Finally, there’s the big one, the iPhone 12 Pro Max. With a rumored screen size of 6.7 inches, you’ll need a pretty big pocket to keep this beast comfortably housed. 

Video: Bose QuietComfort Earbuds: Best noise canceling (CNET)

Bose QuietComfort Earbuds: Best noise canceling

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Physical design, cameras and notch

Various rumors have pointed towards an update to the outer metal edging of the iPhone 12, which will sport a flat, chamfered-edge metal design, much like the edging seen on the recent iPad Pro . PhoneArena’s

Anti-Inflammatory Biologics Market 2020: Global Size, Growth Factors, Emerging Technologies, Major Segments, Forecast Research Report 2026

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The global “Anti-Inflammatory Biologics Market Size” is expected to reach USD 149.80 billion by 2027, exhibiting a CAGR of 11.0% during the forecast period. The indication of an inflammatory surplus in patients with COVID-19 along with plentiful neutrophils and macrophages will revivify growth prospects for the anti-inflammatory biologics market share during the forecast period. The ongoing trials for anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies in severe cases of autoimmune inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or ankylosing spondylitis will aid the speedy expansion of the market during the forecast period, mentioned by Fortune Business Insights, in a report, titled “Anti-Inflammatory Biologics Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Drug Class (Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), Interleukin Antagonists, Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitors, Others), By Application (Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriasis, and Others), By Route of Administration (Oral and Injection (Subcutaneous and Intravenous)), By Distribution Channel (Hospital Pharmacy Retail Pharmacy, and Online Pharmacy), and Regional Forecast, 2020-2027” the market size stood at USD 64.84 billion in 2019.

The report covers:

  • Global Anti-Inflammatory Biologics Market trends, with detailed analysis on consumer trends & manufacturer trends.
  • Overview on supply analysis covering trends across raw material suppliers, technology providers and distributors.
  • Key areas of investments identifying market opportunities and challenges in forecast timeframe.
  • Competitive analysis of the industry players along with the overview on strategic management.
  • Comprehensive company profiles of the major industry players.

Request a Sample Copy of the Research Report: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/request-sample-pdf/anti-inflammatory-biologics-market-102733

Leading Players operating in the Anti-Inflammatory Biologics Market are:

Key players are involved in mergers and acquisition to strengthen their market position. Owing to increasing competition frequent innovations are taking place in the market. Some of the companies operating the industry are:

  • AbbVie Inc.
  • Merck & Co., Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
  • Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • UCB S.A.

Body size of the extinct Megalodon indeed off the charts in the shark world — ScienceDaily

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A new study shows that the body size of the iconic gigantic or megatooth shark, about 15 meters (50 feet) in length, is indeed anomalously large compared to body sizes of its relatives.

Formally called Otodus megalodon, the fossil shark that lived nearly worldwide roughly 15-3.6 million years ago is receiving a renewed look at the significance of its body size in the shark world, based on a new study appearing in the international journal Historical Biology.

Otodus megalodon is commonly portrayed as a super-sized, monstrous shark, in novels and films such as the 2018 sci-fi thriller “The Meg,” but it is known that the scientifically justifiable maximum possible body size for the species is about 15 meters (50 feet). Nonetheless, it is still an impressively large shark, and the new study illuminates exactly how uniquely gigantic the shark was, according to Kenshu Shimada, a paleobiologist at DePaul University in Chicago and lead author of the study.

Otodus megalodon belongs to the shark group called lamniforms with a rich fossil record, but the biology of extinct forms is poorly understood because these cartilaginous fishes are mostly known only from their teeth. Based on measurements taken from present-day non-planktivorous lamniforms, the study presents an equation that would allow estimations about the body length of extinct forms from their teeth. The study demonstrates that O. megalodon that reached about 15 meters (50 feet) is truly an outlier because practically all other non-planktivorous sharks have a general size limit of 7 meters (23 feet), and only a few plankton-eating sharks, such as the whale shark and basking shark, were equivalent or came close to the size. The study also reveals that the Cenozoic Era (after the age of dinosaurs, including today) saw more lamniform lineages attaining larger sizes than the Mesozoic (age

Destiny 2’s Size Is Shrinking Dramatically, But You’ll Need To Re-Download The Whole Game

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Destiny 2 developer Bungie is making some changes to how it updates the game, and for the upcoming Beyond Light expansion, this means you’ll need to re-download the entire game–but this move comes with some good news as well.

Bungie said in a blog post that it recognizes this could be a “painful” problem for people with slow internet or caps on their data. “We’re sorry about that,” Bungie said.

To help make this sting less, Bungie will start pre-loading for Beyond Light on the evening of November 9 (Pacific Time), so people have at least 10 hours to download the expansion before it officially goes live on November 10.

The reason for the re-download requirement is that Bungie has “revamped [its] content building and patching pipeline” to help make downloads get smaller and install faster. Due to Destiny 2’s “tremendous size,” it currently takes more than 24 hours for the developer to get new patches ready, but with the Beyond Light expansion, this drops down to below 12 hours.

Additionally, Bungie is removing content from Destiny 2 that has since been upgraded or replaced. Bungie refers to this as “dead” content, and it’s being removed with the Beyond Light expansion. As a result, the total install size for the game will drop by 30-40 percent.

Destiny 2’s file size will now be between 59 GB and 71 GB depending on your platform.

Beyond Light launches on November 10 for PS4, Xbox One, and PC, and it will also be playable on PS5 and Xbox Series X. The expansion takes players to Jupiter’s frozen moon, Europa, and temporarily “vaults” certain content, including entire planets and activities.

Destiny 2 adopted a free-to-play model some time ago, but the expansions are paid. However, Xbox One players are getting Beyond Light for free