Astronomers solve dark matter puzzle of strange galaxy — ScienceDaily

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At present, the formation of galaxies is difficult to understand without the presence of a ubiquitous, but mysterious component, termed dark matter. Astronomers have measure how much dark matter there is around galaxies, and have found that it varies between 10 and 300 times the quantity of visible matter. However, a few years ago, the discovery of a very diffuse object, named Dragonfly 44, changed this view. It was found that this galaxy has 10,000 times more dark matter than the stars. Taken back by this finding, astronomers have made efforts to see whether this object is really anomalous, or whether something went wrong in the analysis of the observations. Now we have the answer.

An international team led by the Kapteyn Institute of the University of Groningen (the Netherlands), with participation by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL), has found that the total number of globular clusters around Dragonfly 44 and, therefore, the dark matter content, is much less than earlier findings had suggested, which shows that this galaxy is neither unique nor anomalous. The result was recently published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS).

The galaxy Dragonfly 44 was discovered in a deep survey of the Coma cluster, a cluster with several thousand galaxies. From the start, the galaxy was considered remarkable by the researchers because the quantity of dark matter they inferred was almost as much as that in the Milky Way, the equivalent of a billion solar masses.

However, instead of containing around a hundred thousand million stars, as has the Milky Way, DF44 has only a hundred million stars, a thousand times fewer. This means that the amount of dark matter was ten thousand times greater than that of its stars. If this had

Geologists solve puzzle that could predict valuable rare earth element deposits

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Geologists solve puzzle that could predict valuable rare earth element deposits
Pioneering new research has helped geologists solve a long-standing puzzle that could help pinpoint new, untapped concentrations of some the most valuable rare earth deposits. Credit: Michael Anenburg, ANU.

Pioneering new research has helped geologists solve a long-standing puzzle that could help pinpoint new, untapped concentrations of some the most valuable rare earth deposits.


A team of geologists, led by Professor Frances Wall from the Camborne School of Mines, have discovered a new hypothesis to predict where rare earth elements neodymium and dysprosium could be found.

The elements are among the most sought after, because they are an essential part of digital and clean energy manufacturing, including magnets in large wind turbines and electric cars motors.

For the new research, scientists conducted a series of experiments that showed sodium and potassium—rather than chlorine or fluorine as previously thought—were the key ingredients for making these rare earth elements soluble.

This is crucial as it determines whether they crystalise—making them fit for extraction—or stayed dissolved in fluids.

The experiments could therefore allow geologists to make better predictions about where the best concentrations of neodymium and dysprosium are likely to be found.

The results are published in the journal, Science Advances on Friday, October 9th 2020.

University of Exeter researchers, through the ‘SoS RARE’ project, have previously studied many natural examples of the roots of very unusual extinct carbonatite volcanoes, where the world’s best rare earth deposits occur, in order to try and identify potential deposits of the rare earth minerals.

However, in order to gain a greater insight into their results, they invited Michael Anenburg to join the team to carry out experiments at the Australian National University (ANU).

He simulated the crystallisation of molten carbonate magma to find out which elements would be concentrated in the hot waters left over from

Geologists solve puzzle that could predict valuable rare earth element deposits — ScienceDaily

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Pioneering new research has helped geologists solve a long-standing puzzle that could help pinpoint new, untapped concentrations of some the most valuable rare earth deposits.

A team of geologists, led by Professor Frances Wall from the Camborne School of Mines, have discovered a new hypothesis to predict where rare earth elements neodymium and dysprosium could be found.

The elements are among the most sought after, because they are an essential part of digital and clean energy manufacturing, including magnets in large wind turbines and electric cars motors.

For the new research, scientists conducted a series of experiments that showed sodium and potassium — rather than chlorine or fluorine as previously thought — were the key ingredients for making these rare earth elements soluble.

This is crucial as it determines whether they crystalise — making them fit for extraction — or stayed dissolved in fluids.

The experiments could therefore allow geologists to make better predictions about where the best concentrations of neodymium and dysprosium are likely to be found.

The results are published in the journal, Science Advances on Friday, October 9th 2020.

University of Exeter researchers, through the ‘SoS RARE’ project, have previously studied many natural examples of the roots of very unusual extinct carbonatite volcanoes, where the world’s best rare earth deposits occur, in order to try and identify potential deposits of the rare earth minerals.

However, in order to gain a greater insight into their results, they invited Michael Anenburg to join the team to carry out experiments at the Australian National University (ANU).

He simulated the crystallisation of molten carbonate magma to find out which elements would be concentrated in the hot waters left over from the crystallisation process.

It showed that sodium and potassium make the rare earths soluble in solution. Without sodium and potassium, rare

Neuromorphic computing could solve the tech industry’s looming crisis

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What’s the best computer in the world? The most souped-up, high-end gaming rig? Whatever supercomputer took the number one spot in the TOP500 this year? The kit inside the datacentres that Apple or Microsoft rely on? Nope: it’s the one inside your skull. 

As computers go, brains are way ahead of the competition. They’re small, lightweight, have low energy consumption, and are amazingly adaptable. And they’re also set to be the model for the next wave of advanced computing.

These brain-inspired designs are known collectively as ‘neuromorphic computing’. Even the most advanced computers don’t come close to the human brain — or even most mammal brains — but our grey matter can give engineers and developers a few pointers on how to make computing infrastrastructure more efficient, by mimicking the brain’s own synapses and neurones.

SEE: Building the bionic brain (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

First, the biology. Neurones are nerve cells, and work as the cabling that carries messages from one part of the body to the other. Those messages are passed from one neurone to another until they reach the right part of the body where they can produce an effect — by causing us to be aware of pain, move a muscle, or form a sentence, for example. 

The way that neurones pass on messages to each other is across a gap is called a synapse. Once a neurone has received enough input to trigger it, it passes a chemical or electrical impulse, known as an action potential, onto the next neurone, or onto another cell, such as a muscle or gland. 

Next, the technology. Neuromorphic computing software seeks to recreate these action potentials through spiking neural networks (SNNs). SNNs are made of neurons that signal to other neurons by generating their own action potentials, conveying information as they

Rackspace Technology and Cloud Security Leader, Armor, Announce The New Cybersecurity Landscape Solve Strategy Series Webinar

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SAN ANTONIO, Oct. 01, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Rackspace Technology™ (NASDAQ: RXT), a leading end-to-end multicloud technology solutions company, will co-sponsor The New Cybersecurity Landscape virtual event with Armor® on October 7th at 10:00 am CT as part of the company’s Solve Strategy Series. From Zoom bombing to account takeovers, through access mining and phishing, the event will shed light on emerging security threats and empower viewers with practical ideas on how to build a safer future.

Keren Elazari, TED speaker, security analyst, and friendly hacker, will deliver a keynote on how security challenges have changed in the age of COVID-19. She will then be joined by cybersecurity experts from Plus500™, Armor, and Rackspace Technology for a panel discussion on what has changed in the cybersecurity landscape and what businesses must do to adapt.

“This pandemic has been a renaissance for bad actors in the cybersecurity space,” said Elazari. “We need to look at how criminals are evolving and adapting to the new normal. Remote work has created new opportunities for criminals to disrupt businesses and use our digital assets against us. We need to protect the people who are now on the digital front lines.”

In addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, the virtual event comes at a time when the amount of global data is increasing exponentially. According to Information Overload Research Group (IORG), 90% of the world’s data has been created in the last two years alone. While this massive amount of data is necessary for organizations to operate, it has also uncovered new security threats to guard against. Gartner predicts that worldwide spending on cybersecurity will reach $133.7 billion in 2022.

“The COVID-19 crisis has changed the ways we do business, and cyber criminals have quickly adapted to the new reality,” said Michael Schofield, Vice