Astronomers Observe Star Being ‘Spaghettified’ by a Supermassive Black Hole

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Artist’s impression of a star undergoing spaghettification near a supermassive black hole.

Artist’s impression of a star undergoing spaghettification near a supermassive black hole.
Image: ESO

A star 215 million light-years away has been obliterated by a supermassive black hole, making it the closest observation to date of stellar spaghettification.

Spaghettification doesn’t sound very scientific, but it’s a fairly accurate description of what actually happens.

A doomed star caught in the orbit of a supermassive black hole will eventually hit a kind of gravitational sweet spot that turns everything to shit. No longer capable of keeping its physical integrity, the star begins to rapidly collapse in a process known as a fast-evolving tidal disruption event. When this happens, stellar debris bursts out from the star, forming a long, thin stream, half of which gets sucked toward the black hole; the other half is blown back into space. The thin stream eventually catches up to and slams into itself, releasing energy and forming an accretion disc. If that’s hard to visualize, here’s a video showing the process:

The destruction produces a bright flash of light, which astronomers can observe on Earth. A few of these events are captured each year, but new research published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society describes the nearest case of stellar spaghettification ever recorded, at 215 million light-years away. The event, designated AT2019qiz, was chronicled last year, and it appeared at the core of a spiral galaxy located in the Eridanus constellation. The unfortunate star was roughly the same size as our Sun, and it was torn apart by a supermassive black hole roughly 1 million times the Sun’s mass.

The event was initially captured by the Zwicky Transient Facility, with follow-up observations done with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, the ESO New Technology Telescope, and Harvard & Smithsonian’s MMT Observatory, among other

We Watched As A Nearby Star Was Sucked In And ‘Spaghettified’ By A Monster Black Hole, Say Scientists

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A star in the act of being devoured by a supermassive black hole. It’s the latest incredible cosmic phenomenon tracked and traced by astronomers using giant telescopes.

This iconic “tidal disruption event”—named “AT2019qiz”—occurred 215 million light-years away, which makes it the closest observed so far. 

“The idea of a black hole “sucking in” a nearby star sounds like science fiction, but this is exactly what happens in a tidal disruption event,” said Dr Matt Nicholl, a lecturer and Royal Astronomical Society research fellow at the University of Birmingham in the UK, and lead author of the paper published today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

“We were able to investigate in detail what happens when a star is eaten by such a monster,” he added.

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What is a ‘tidal disruption event?’

It’s when a star gets too close to a black hole and thus gets pulled apart by the black hole’s extreme gravitational pull. “An unfortunate star in the nucleus of a galaxy can find itself on an orbit that intersects the tidal radius of the central supermassive black hole,” reads the paper. “This destruction can power a very luminous flare.” That’s exactly what the researchers saw.

What happened to the star?

It was shredded