iPhone 12 Lineup’s mmWave 5G Support Limited to the United States


As expected, the entire iPhone 12 lineup is compatible with faster 5G networks, but Apple’s website confirms that support for high-frequency mmWave bands is limited to models sold in the United States. This includes compatibility with Verizon’s new 5G Ultra Wideband network, which as of today is available in 55 cities across the country.

mmWave is supported on all iPhone 12 models sold in the United States, ranging from the iPhone 12 mini to the iPhone 12 Pro Max. iPhone 12 models sold in all other countries and regions are limited to sub-6GHz bands for 5G.

mmWave is a set of 5G frequencies that promise ultra-fast speeds at short distances, making it best suited for dense urban areas. By comparison, sub-6GHz 5G is generally slower than mmWave, but the signals travel further, better serving suburban and rural areas. In most countries that offer 5G, sub-6GHz networks are more common.

Apple says iPhone 12 models support more 5G bands than any other smartphone, and the devices can automatically adjust to LTE when necessary to save battery life, such as when updates are taking place in the background.

iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro pre-orders begin Friday, October 16 at 5 a.m. Pacific Time, with shipments starting Friday, October 23. The smaller 5.4-inch iPhone 12 mini and larger 6.7-inch iPhone 12 Pro Max are launching later, with pre-orders beginning Friday, November 6 at 5 a.m. Pacific Time and shipments starting Friday, November 13.

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Twisting a monolayer and a bilayer sheet of graphene into a three-layer structure leads to new quantum mechanical states. — ScienceDaily


Since the discovery of graphene more than 15 years ago, researchers have been in a global race to unlock its unique properties. Not only is graphene — a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice — the strongest, thinnest material known to man, it is also an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.

Now, a team of researchers at Columbia University and the University of Washington has discovered that a variety of exotic electronic states, including a rare form of magnetism, can arise in a three-layer graphene structure.

The findings appear in an article published Oct. 12 in Nature Physics.

The work was inspired by recent studies of twisted monolayers or twisted bilayers of graphene, comprising either two or four total sheets. These materials were found to host an array of unusual electronic states driven by strong interactions between electrons.

“We wondered what would happen if we combined graphene monolayers and bilayers into a twisted three-layer system,” said Cory Dean, a professor of physics at Columbia University and one of the paper’s senior authors. “We found that varying the number of graphene layers endows these composite materials with some exciting new properties that had not been seen before.”

In addition to Dean, Assistant Professor Matthew Yankowitz and Professor Xiaodong Xu, both in the departments of physics and materials science and engineering at University of Washington, are senior authors on the work. Columbia graduate student Shaowen Chen, and University of Washington graduate student Minhao He are the paper’s co-lead authors.

To conduct their experiment, the researchers stacked a monolayer sheet of graphene onto a bilayer sheet and twisted them by about 1 degree. At temperatures a few degrees over absolute zero, the team observed an array of insulating states — which do not conduct electricity — driven by

States that reopened sooner, such as Texas, Arizona and Florida, experienced summer surges, report says — ScienceDaily


For every two deaths attributed to COVID-19 in the U.S., a third American dies as a result of the pandemic, according to new data publishing Oct. 12 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

The study, led by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University, shows that deaths between March 1 and Aug. 1 increased 20% compared to previous years — maybe not surprising in a pandemic. But deaths attributed to COVID-19 only accounted for 67% of those deaths.

“Contrary to skeptics who claim that COVID-19 deaths are fake or that the numbers are much smaller than we hear on the news, our research and many other studies on the same subject show quite the opposite,” said lead author Steven Woolf, M.D., director emeritus of VCU’s Center on Society and Health.

The study also contains suggestive evidence that state policies on reopening early in April and May may have fueled the surges experienced in June and July.

“The high death counts in Sun Belt states show us the grave consequences of how some states responded to the pandemic and sound the alarm not to repeat this mistake going forward,” said Woolf, a professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Population Health at the VCU School of Medicine.

Total death counts in the U.S. are remarkably consistent from year to year, as the study notes. The study authors pulled data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 2014 to 2020, using regression models to predict expected deaths for 2020.

The gap between reported COVID-19 deaths and all unexpected deaths can be partially explained by delays in reporting COVID-19 deaths, miscoding or other data limitations, Woolf said. But the pandemic’s other ripple effects could explain more.

“Some people who never had the virus may have died because of disruptions caused

How should the United States respond?


Learn more about Global ChinaChina is the world’s second largest digital economy, second only to the United States, and leads the world in the value of many digital applications, including e-commerce and mobile payments. This extensive online activity by Chinese netizens also provides huge amounts of data that can be used to train artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. China’s dominance in 5G infrastructure will further support China’s digital economy and early 5G rollout in China could give Chinese entrepreneurs a head-start developing new digital applications. China’s digital economy and the importance of data and digital services is also intertwined with its manufacturing activity and the centrality of China in global value chains (GVC), providing enormous scope to export digital services as inputs in manufactured products.

Yet, China remains largely closed to foreign competition, with restrictions on digital services imports, a heavily restricted and regulated internet that requires data to be localized, and limited access to online information. These limits to foreign competition stand in contrast to China’s outward focused efforts to shape the international environment and the development of norms and rules affecting data governance consistent with its domestic approach. This includes in international standard-setting bodies, through its support for broadband connectivity and smart cities as part of its Digital Silk Road (DSR) and broader Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

These Chinese efforts abroad and restrictions domestically are harmful to U.S. interests. The United States has been leading efforts supporting an open internet, particularly through its development of digital trade commitments and support for similar efforts in the G20 and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). However, more is needed to effectively counter China’s efforts globally including as part of its DSR, or risk an internet bifurcated between the United States and China, with security and economic consequences for the United States and its

Cortex-wide variation of neuronal cellular energy levels depending on the sleep-wake states — ScienceDaily


It is assumed that the brain has homeostatic mechanisms to prevent the depletion of cellular energy, required for all cellular activities. For example, the blood flow increases, and oxygen and glucose are actively delivered in the brain region in which neural firing activity occurs. Besides, the cerebral blood flow and glucose uptake into the cells fluctuate accompanying the variations of cellular activities in the brain across the sleep-wake states of animals. Under these brain energy homeostatic mechanisms, it is assumed that the cellular energy status in the brain could be maintained constant in all physiological conditions including across the sleep-wake states of animals. However, this has not been experimentally proven.

To investigate whether the cellular energy status in the brain of living animals is always constant or variated, the researchers measured the neuronal intracellular concentration of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), the major cellular energy metabolite, using a fluorescent sensor in the brain of living mice. Using an optical fiber and wide-field microscopy, they showed a cortex-wide variation of cytosolic ATP levels in the cortical neurons depending on the sleep-wake states of animals: The ATP levels were high during the waking state, decreased during non-REM sleep, and profoundly decreased during REM sleep. On the other hand, cerebral blood flow, as a metabolic parameter for energy supply, slightly increased during non-REM sleep and greatly increased during REM sleep, compared with the waking state. The reduction in neuronal ATP levels was also observed under general anesthesia in mice and response to local brain electrical stimulation for neuronal activation, whereas the hemodynamics was simultaneously enhanced.

Since the neuronal ATP levels increase throughout the cortex in the waking state, which is when the cellular energy demand increases, brain mechanisms for energy modulation could increase the neuronal ATP levels in a cortex-wide manner in response to the