Studying the sun as a star to understand stellar flares and exoplanets — ScienceDaily


New research shows that sunspots and other active regions can change the overall solar emissions. The sunspots cause some emissions to dim and others to brighten; the timing of the changes also varies between different types of emissions. This knowledge will help astronomers characterize the conditions of stars, which has important implications for finding exoplanets around those stars.

An international research team led by Shin Toriumi at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency added up the different types of emissions observed by a fleet of satellites including “Hinode” and the “Solar Dynamics Observatory” to see what the Sun would look like if observed from far away as a single dot of light like other stars.

The team investigated how features like sunspots change the overall picture. They found that when a sunspot is near the middle of the side of the Sun facing us, it causes the total amount of visible light to dim. In contrast, when the sunspots are near the edge of the Sun the total visible light brightens because at that viewing angle bright structures known as faculae surrounding the sunspots are more visible than the dark centers.

In addition, X-rays which are produced in the corona above the solar surface grow brighter when a sunspot is visible. The coronal loops extending above the sunspots are magnetically heated, so this brightening appears before the sunspot itself rotates into view and persists even after the sunspot has rotated out of view.

Because the changes in the overall solar emissions and their timings carry information about the location and structure of features on the surface of the Sun, astronomers hope to be able to deduce the surface features of other stars such as starspots and magnetic fields. This will help astronomers to better recognize dimming caused by the shadow of

Galaxy S20 FE: This stellar phone is the best Samsung buy in 2020



Andrew Hoyle/CNET

Samsung’s Galaxy S20 Ultra and Galaxy Note 20 Ultra might be packed to the hilt with the latest, greatest tech, but they also come with sky-high prices to match. That makes them a tricky sell at a time when purse strings are tightening and rivals like Google and OnePlus are making great phones at more affordable prices.

But the Galaxy S20 FE, which stands for “fan edition,” packs many of the great features of its flagship siblings, including a solid triple camera, a powerful processor, IP68 waterproofing and 5G connectivity, all for a much more affordable price.


  • Great performance
  • 5G-enabled
  • Realistic price

Don’t Like

  • Camera white balance can be hit and miss

At $700 in the US, it’s a hell of a lot cheaper than the Note 20 Ultra, which retails for $1,300 (£1,179, AU$1,849). In the UK and Australia, a 4G version of the S20 FE is available for £599 or AU$999, with the 5G version going for £699 or AU$1,149.

That’s the same US price as the recently announced Google Pixel 5 (which is a little cheaper in the UK and Australia), but the S20 FE does offer benefits over the Pixel in the form of an additional telephoto lens, expandable storage and a more potent processor. We’ll have to wait to get the Pixel in our hands to work out exactly how these two stack up. 

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The Samsung galaxy S20 FE is the midrange phone to beat


But overall, the Galaxy S20 FE is not a revolution in mobile technology, but it’s not designed to be. What it is is a solid all-round phone at a more affordable price. While it’s still more expensive than phones like the iPhone SE and the OnePlus Nord, its better spec list makes