Perforated bone tissue from too little sugar — ScienceDaily

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Could something as simple as a certain type of sugar water be medicine for perforated bones, and even bone marrow cancer itself?

Inside our bodies are some jellyfish-like cells that actually eat away at our bones. Every year, they eat about ten per cent of the bone mass in our body. Fortunately, other cells usually follow and build up new bone.

We undergo a kind of continuous remodelling and repair that enables most of us to traipse around with steel in our legs and arms.

In people with bone marrow cancer, the bone-eating cells run amok. They become too numerous and eat too much. The bone-building gang doesn’t have time to rebuild the bone mass, despite overtime and long shifts. Bone tissue gets gobbled up.

Many people with bone marrow cancer often end up with perforated bones, a condition that is very painful to live with. They sometimes experience collapsed vertebrae or suffer broken bones just by turning in bed.

For decades, scientists around the world have been scratching their heads and wondering what the cause could be. Various theories have been launched, but researchers have not reached a consensus on the main cause.

Bone marrow cancer remains an incurable disease so far. Available treatments can prolong life, but not cure the disease.

Now Standal and her research group at the Centre of Molecular Inflammation Research (CEMIR) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) have discovered a piece of the puzzle that looks very promising.

They have come to the conclusion that the cause of the bone destruction is too little sugar. We’re not talking about the sugar we eat in our cakes and biscuits, but sugar that resides in a substance that is important for the immune system.

To get to the bottom of how sugar is

Simple sugar possible therapy for repairing myelin in multiple sclerosis — ScienceDaily

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N-acetylglucosamine, a simple sugar found in human breast milk and sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the United States, promotes myelin repair in mouse models and correlates with myelination levels in multiple sclerosis patients according to a new University of California, Irvine-led study.

Published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, the study also demonstrates that in mice, delivering N-acetylglucosamine orally to lactating mothers drove primary myelination in their nursing offspring. N-acetylglucosamine is a simple sugar that is metabolically attached to proteins at the cell surface to control cellular function.

“We found that N-acetylglucosamine activates myelin stem cells to promote primary myelination and myelin repair,” said Michael Demetriou, MD, PhD, FRCP(C), professor of neurology, microbiology and molecular genetics at UCI School of Medicine and leader of the study. “Our data raises the intriguing possibility that N-acetylglucosamine may be a simple therapy to promote myelin repair in multiple sclerosis patients.” Formal human studies will be required to test this theory.

The failure of robust re-myelination following inflammatory demyelination in multiple sclerosis leads to chronic disability and neurodegeneration. Myelin insulates the long, cable-like nerve cell branches called axons, and serves to increase the speed of electrical signal conduction between neurons. Myelination in the central nervous system also plays an important role in cognitive development during childhood.

“Interestingly, since N-acetylglucosamine is a major component of human breast milk but not baby formula, it may explain some of the cognitive function and myelination benefits realized by children fed breast milk as opposed to formula.” said Michael Sy, MD, PhD, assistant professor of neurology at UCI School of Medicine, co-director of the regional MS program at the VA Long Beach Healthcare System, and first author of the study.

Dr. med. Alexander Brandt, MD, who led the clinical parts of the study together with Dr.

How A Break From Lord Sugar Changed The Fortunes Of This Young Entrepreneur

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It takes hard work, determination, and talent to achieve startup success, but getting an early break from a major business leader like Lord Alan Sugar can be a real game changer, as entrepreneur Ross Testa, founder of video and social media agency 3 Heads Agency discovered.

At school, Testa had no idea where his future career lay. While his friends pursued predictable routes into law, medicine, and journalism, he admits that his plans were non-existent. Everything changed when, aged 18, he decided to organize a charity week at school to raise money for the Teenage Cancer Trust after one of his closest friends, Ellis Haggith, was diagnosed with leukemia.

He says: “I was determined to make it a success, and it was: the campaign raised just under £5,000 in one week. We had support from a lot of businesses and celebrities, and the experience made me realize this was what I wanted to do as a career. I approached several businesses, offering to create content for their social media, and when one, a barber’s shop, got back to me, and I had my first client.”

He launched his video and social media agency while still at school, but at that stage wasn’t ready to commit to working on the business full time. He decided to go to university to study business management and run his agency in his spare time. Keeping all his options open, he also took a full-time job with Microsoft.

Testa, now 23, says: “I applied for the job at the start of my first year, and while I waited to hear back from them, my business starting to grow. When they offered me the job, I was caught between three amazing opportunities, growing my business, studying at university, and working at