New 3-D model of a DNA-regulating complex in human cells provides cancer clues — ScienceDaily

Scientists have created an unprecedented 3-dimensional structural model of a key molecular “machine” known as the BAF complex, which modifies DNA architecture and is frequently mutated in cancer and some other diseases. The researchers, led by Cigall Kadoch, PhD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, have reported the first 3-D structural “picture” of BAF complexes purified directly from human cells in their native states — rather than artificially synthesized in the laboratory -providing an opportunity to spatially map thousands of cancer-associated mutations to specific locations within the complex.

“A 3-D structural model, or ‘picture,’ of how this complex actually looks inside the nucleus of our cells has remained elusive — until now,” says Kadoch. The newly obtained model represents “the most complete picture of the human BAF complex achieved to date,” said the investigators, reporting in the journal Cell.

These new findings “provide a critical foundation for understanding human disease-associated mutations in components of the BAF complex, which are present in over 20% of human cancers and in several intellectual disability and neurodevelopomental disorders,” the authors said. These insights could help scientists understand how mutations in proteins making up the complex lead to disruption of the normal regulation of DNA and hence the expression of genes in cells, potentially causing cancerous growth of cells to form tumors. Mutations in the BAF complex, for example, are the sole cause of rare childhood cancers such as synovial sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid, and contribute to common cancers such as ovarian and lung cancers.

The BAF complex is “molecular machine,” a group of proteins that remodel the way DNA is packaged in cells. It is made up of a dozen protein subunits specified by 29 different genes. Previous attempts to obtain a structural 3-D model of the BAF complex were based on protein molecules recombinantly

Act now on wildfires, global climate change, human health, study says — ScienceDaily

Immediate actions are needed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions that are driving climate change that helps fuel wildfires, a Monash University study says.

A special report published in the New England Journal of Medicine, led by Professor Yuming Guo and Dr Shanshan Li from the Monash School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, summarises the enormous impacts of climate change on wildfire seasons and the sequential increased morbidity, mortality, and mental health impacts.

The report, which analysed numerous studies on wildfires over the past 20 years, says global climate change is fueling the three essential conditions for wildfires — fuel, oxygen and an ignition source. The world is seeing inconsistent rainfall, increased drought and hotter temperatures, leading to more flammable vegetation.

It says the global mean carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from wildfires accounted for about 22 per cent of the carbon emission from burning fossil fuels between 1997-2016. The inconsistent approach to global forest management and the conversion of tropical savannas to agricultural lands is damaging the world’s ability to absorb CO2 and cool the climate.

The report says projections suggest that if high greenhouse gas emissions continue, wildfire exposure could substantially increase to over 74 per cent of the global land mass by the end of the century.

However, if immediate climate mitigation efforts are taken to limit the global mean temperature increase to 2.0?C or 1.5?C, a corresponding 60 per cent and 80 per cent, respective increase in wildfire exposure could be avoided, the report says.

Reaching the 1.5°C target would require reducing global net CO2 emissions by about 45 per cent from 2010 levels by 2030 and reaching net zero around 2050. The 1.5°C target remains achievable if CO2 emissions decline by 7.6 per cent per year from 2020 to 2030.

How deadly parasites ‘glide’ into human cells — ScienceDaily

In biological terms, gliding refers to the type of movement during which a cell moves along a surface without changing its shape. This form of movement is unique to parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Both parasites, which are transmitted by mosquitoes and cats, have an enormous impact on global heath. Plasmodium causes 228 million malaria infections and around 400,000 deaths per year. Toxoplasma, which infects even one third of the human population, can cause severe symptoms in some people, and is particularly dangerous during pregnancy.

Gliding enables the Apicomplexa parasites to enter and move between host cells. For example, upon entering the human body through a mosquito bite, Plasmodium glides through human skin before crossing into human blood vessels. This type of motion relies on actin and myosin, which are the same proteins that enable muscle movement in humans and other vertebrates. Myosin has a form of molecular ‘legs’ that ‘march’ along actin filaments and thereby create movement.

In Apicomplexa, myosin interacts with several other proteins, which together form a complex called the glideosome. The exact mechanism by which the glideosome works is not well understood, among other reasons because the molecular structure of most glideosome proteins are unknown. Yet understanding this mechanism could aid the development of drugs that prevent the assembly of the glideosome and thereby stop the progression of diseases such as malaria and toxoplasmosis.

Molecular stilts facilitate gliding

Scientists at EMBL Hamburg analysed the molecular structure of essential light chains (ELCs), which are glideosome proteins that bind directly to myosin. It is known that they are necessary for gliding, but their exact structure and role were unknown until now. The researchers now obtained molecular structures of ELC bound to myosin A in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum using X-ray crystallography and

Capgemini Press Release// Capgemini reveals its purpose of “Unleashing human energy through technology for an inclusive and sustainable future.”

Hi,
Please find below the press release issued today.

Best regards,

Florence Lièvre
Global PR Manager | Group Marketing & Communications

Capgemini Group | Paris
Tel.: +33 1 47 54 50 71
Email : [email protected]
_____________________

Press contact:
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Tel.: +44 (0) 370 904 3601
Email: [email protected]

Capgemini reveals its purpose of
“Unleashing human energy through technology
for an inclusive and sustainable future.”

Paris, October 12 2020 – Capgemini today reveals its purpose which was developed in collaboration with its many stakeholders, and with the Group’s employees at the heart of the process. It now forms one of the fundamentals of the Group.

 “Unleashing human energy through technology for an inclusive and sustainable future”: for the Capgemini Group, technology promises progress

The Group believes that digital transformation should benefit all of humanity. Capgemini intends to be a benchmark in terms of its contribution to society, not just for its own activities but for those of its customers too, fighting exclusion and acting to promote diversity, ensuring equal opportunities and the preservation of natural resources. The very heart of the Group’s purpose is to build an inclusive and sustainable future for all, enabled by technology, drawing on the energy of its talents and also the talents of its customers and partners.

Paul Hermelin, Chairman of the Board, and Aiman Ezzat, Chief Executive Officer of Capgemini, said: “Capgemini has a key role to play in ensuring that the future lives up to all its promises. We believe that all technologies can enable progress for everyone if, first and foremost, they are designed by and for humans. As a responsible company, the Group is realistic when it comes to the promises as well as the risks of technological innovation: our role is to make it useful, accessible and ethical. This

How many organs are in the human body?

Since ancient times, humankind has sought to understand the guts inside us. Ancient Egyptians handled human organs as they removed them for embalming. Medical manuscripts found in an ancient Chinese tomb may be the earliest-known anatomical writing about the human body. Thousands of years later, do we know how many organs are in the human body?



a person wearing a hat and sunglasses posing for the camera: How many organs can you see in this human model?


© Provided by Live Science
How many organs can you see in this human model?

Organs are collections of tissues that work together for a common goal, explained Lisa M.J. Lee, an associate professor in the Department of Cell & Developmental Biology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “Every organ provides a function for human performance or survival,” she told Live Science.

But not every organ is necessary for survival. Only five organs — the brain, heart, liver, at least one kidney, and at least one lung are absolutely essential for living. Losing total function of any one of these vital organs spells death. Remarkably, the human body can survive without a lot of other organs, or by replacing a non-functioning organ with a medical device. 

Related: Why do we have an appendix?

As for counting organs in the human body, it depends on whom you ask and how you count, Lee said. Although no one knows where the number originates, the general count is 78 organs, she said. This list includes the vital organs: the tongue, stomach, thyroid, urethra, pancreas, plus many other single or pairs of organs. Bones and teeth are each counted only once.

Among anatomists, viewpoints differ on what counts as an organ. A histologist like Lee, who studies tissue at the microscopic level, may have a longer list of organs than a gross anatomist, who studies what’s visible to the unaided eye. For example, scientists made